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Incoterm2000

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  • 公司名称: 56JGW
  • QQ: 1421534003
发表于 2018-3-7 21:44:33 |阅读模式
       Sending goods from one country to another, as part of a commercial transaction, can be a risky business. if they are lost or damaged, or if delivery dose not take place for some other reason, the climate of confidence between parties may degenerate to the point where a law suit is brought, Therefore, above all, sellers and buyers in international contracts want their deals to be successfully completed.
       If, when drawing up their contract, buyer and seller have some commonly understood rules to specifically refer to, they can be sure for defining their respective responsibilities simply and safely. in so doing they eliminate any possibility of misunderstanding and subsequent dispute.
      The purpose of Inconterms is to provide a set of international rules for the interpretation of the most commonly used trade terms in foreign trade. Thus, the uncertainties of different interpretations of such terms in different countries can be avoided or at least reduced to a considerable degree.
       Frequently parties to a contract are unaware of the different misunderstandings, disputes and litigation with all the waste of time and money that this entails. in order to remedy these problems, the international Chamber of Commerce first published in 1936 a set of international rules for interpretation of trade terms. These rules were known as INCOTERMS 1936. Amendments and additions were later made in 1953, 1976, 1980, 1990 and presently 2000 in order to bring the rules in line with current international trade practices.
      Incoterms have been revised to take account of changes in transportation techniques, such as the unitization on cargo in containers, multimodal transport and roll on roll off traffic with road vehicles and railway wagons in short-sea maritime transport - certain terms have been consolidated and rearranged and to render them fully compatible with new developments in electronic data interchange EDI
      The main reason from the 1990 revision of Incoterms was the desire to adapt terms to the increasing use of electronic data interchange. In the 1990 version of Incoterms this is possible when the parties have to provide various documents such as commercial invoices, documents needed for customs clearance. as well as transport documents. particular problems arise when the seller has to present a negotiable transport document and notably the bill of lading which is frequently used for the purposes of selling the goods while they are being carried. in these cases it is of vital importance, when using EDI messages, to ensure that the buyer has the same legal position as he would have obtained if the had received a bill of lading from the seller.
      The 2000 revision of Incoterms took account of the spread of customs-free zones, the increased use of electronic communication, and the changes in transport practices. the new version offers a simpler and clearer presentation of the definitions of all the terms. as in the previous version, the trade terms of Incoterms 2000 are presented in a format which allows seller and buyer to follow a step by step process to determine their respective obligations. the terms have been grouped in four basically different categories; namely starting with the only term whereby the seller makes the goods available to the buyer at the seller's own premises (the E-term, Ex-work); followed by the second group whereby the seller is called upon to deliver the goods to a carrier appointed by the buyer (the F-terms FCA, FAS and FOB); continuing with the C-terms where the seller has to contract for carriage, but without assuming the risk of loss of or damage to the goods or additional costs due to events occurring after shipment and dispatch (CFR, CIF CPT and CIP); and, finally, the D-term whereby the seller has to bear all costs and risk needed to bring the goods to the country of destination (DAF, DES, DEQ, DDU and DDP)
     
      Further, under all terms, the respective obligation of the parties have been grouped under 10 headings where each heading on the seller's side mirrors the position of the buyer with respect to the same subject matter. thus, if for instance, the seller has to arrange and pay for the contract of carriage we find the words “No obligation” under the heading "Contract of carriage" Seting forth the buyer position.

      However, with respect to the division between the parties of duties, taxes and other official charges, as well as the costs of carrying out customs formalities, the terms explain for the sake of clarity how such costs are divided between the parties although, of course, the seller might not have any interest at all in the buyer's further disposal of the goods after they have been delivered to him, Conversely, under some terms such as the D-terms, the buyer is not interested in costs which the seller might incur in order to bring the goods all the way to agreed destination point. Following is a chart setting out the classification if Incoterms 2000
                     


      Compared with the former version. Incoterms2000 seem to have few changes. that shows the wide recognition of the Incoterms which makes it necessary to consolidate on the recognition without making many changes. However, substantive changes have been made in the following areas;

      1. the customs clearance and payment of duty obligations under FAS and DEQ;


      2. the loading and unloading obligations under FCA.
                           


《2000年国际贸易术语解释通则》(INCOTERMS2000)
    《国际贸易术语解释通则》英文为International Rules for the Interpretation of Trade Terms,缩写形式为INCOTERMS,它是国际商会为了统一对各种贸易术语的解释而制定的。最早的《通则》产生于1936年,后来为适应国际贸易业务发展的需要,国际商会先后进行过多次修改和补充。现行的《2000通则》是国际商会根据近10年来形势的变化和国际贸易发展的需要,在《1990通则》的基础上修订产生的,并于2000年1月1日起生效。
    国际商会推出《2000通则》时,在其引言中指出,进行国际贸易时,除了订阅买卖合同外,还要涉及运输合同、保险合同、融资合同等。这些合同相互关联,相互影响,但《通则》只限于对货物买卖合同中交易双方权利义务的规定,而且该货物是有形的,不包括电脑软件之类的东西。作为买卖合同的卖方,其基本义务可概括为交货、交单和转移货物的所有权,而《通则》也仅仅涉及前两项内容,它不涉及所有权和其他产权的转移问题,也不涉及违约及其后果等问题。
    与《1990通则》对《1980通则》的修改相比,《2000通则》对《1990通则》的改动不大,带有实质性内容的变动只涉及到三种术语,即FCA、FAS和DEQ。但在规定各种术语下买卖双方承担的义务时,《2000通则》在文字上还是作了一些修改,使其含义更加明确。国际商会对《2000通则》的介绍中,将各种常用的专业词语,如“发货人”(Shipper)、“交货”(Delivery)、“通常的”(Usual)等作了明确的解释。}
    在内容和结构方面,《2000通则》保留了《1990通则》包含的13种术语,并仍将这13种术语按不同类别分为E、F、C、D4个组。E组只包括EXW一种贸易术语,这是在商品产地交货的贸易术语。采用EXW条件成交时,卖方承担的风险,责任和费用都是最小的。EXW术语适用于各种运输方式.
     F组包含有FCA、FAS和FOB3种术语,按这些术语成交,卖方须将货物交给买方指定的承运人,从交货地至目地地运费由买方负担。采用这3种贸易术语成交时,均由卖方负责货物出口的报关手续和费用;由买方负责货物进口的报关手续和费用。FCA适用各种运输方式,FAS、FOB只适用于水上运输。
     C组包括CFR、CIF、CPT、CIP4种术语。采用这些术语时,卖方要订立运输合同,但不承担从装运地启运后所发生的货物损坏或灭失的风险及额外费用。
C组贸易术语中的CFR和CIF是在装运港交货,风险划分均以船舷为界,仅适用于水上运输方式;CPT和CIP则是在约定地点向承运人交货,风险划分以货交第一承运人为界,适用于各种运输方式。该组术语的共同之处在于卖方在约定的装运港(地)交货后,还要负责办理货物从装运港(地)到目的港(地)的运输事项,并承担相关费用。
    C组术语下,风险划分和费用划分是两个不同的概念。风险划分是在装运港(地),费用划分则是在目的港(地)。也就是说卖方虽然承担从交货地至目的港(地)的运输责任,并不承担相关费用,但是,他并不承担从交货地到目的港(地)的运输途中货物发生损坏、灭失以及延误的风险。由于卖方承担的风险是在装运港(地)交货时转移,所以,按C组术语成交的合同可称作装运合同,而不是到货合同。
    D组包括5种术语,它们是DAF、DAS、DEQ、DDU和DDP。按照这些术语达成交易,卖方必须承担将货物运往指定的进口国交货地点的一切风险、责任和费用。按D组术语成交时,卖方要负责将货物安全及时地运达指定地点,包括边境地点、目的港口及进口国内地,实际交给买方处置,才算完成交货。卖方要承担货物运至该地点之前的一切风险和费用。因此,按D组术语成交的合同称作到货合同,卖方所承担的风险和费用要大于前面各组术语.
2000通则术语分类
  
E
  
(启运)
  
  
EXW Ex Works
  
  
工厂交货
  
  
F
  
(主要运费未付)
  
  
FCA Free Carrier
  FAS
Free Alongside Ship
  FOB
Free on Board
  
  
货交承运人
  
装运港船边交货
  
装运港船上交货
  
  
C
  
(主要运费已付)
  
  
CFR Cost and Freight
  CIF
Cost  Insurance and Freight
  CPT
Carrige Paid To
  CIP
Carrige and Insurance Paid To
  
  
成本加运费
  
成本加运费、保险费
  
运费付至
  
运费、保险费付至
  
  
D
  
(到达)
  
  
DAF Delivered At Frontier
  DES
Delivered Ex Ship
  DEQ
Delivered Ex Quay
  DDU
Delivered Duty Unpaid
  DDP
Delivered Duty Paid
  
  
边境交货
  
目的港船厂上交货
  
目的港码头交货
  
未完税交货
  
完税后交货
  

《2000通则》的13种贸易术语一览表
  
贸易术语
  
  
交货地点
  
  
风险转移界限
  
  
出口报关责任、费用负担
  
  
进口报关责任、费用负担
  
  
适用运输方式
  
  
EXW
  
  
商品产地、所在地
  
  
买方处置货物后
  
  
买方
  
  
买方
  
  
任何方式
  
  
FCA
  
  
出口国内地、港口
  
  
承运人处置货物后
  
  
卖方
  
  
买方
  
  
任何方式
  
  
FAS
  
  
装运港口
  
  
货交船边后
  
  
卖方
  
  
买方
  
  
水上运输
  
  
FOB
  
  
装运港口
  
  
货物越过船舷
  
  
卖方
  
  
买方
  
  
水上运输
  
  
CFR
  
  
装运港口
  
  
货物越过船舷
  
  
卖方
  
  
买方
  
  
水上运输
  
  
CIF
  
  
装运港口
  
  
货物越过船弦
  
  
卖方
  
  
买方
  
  
水上运输
  
  
CPT
  
  
出口国内地、港口
  
  
承运人处置货物后
  
  
卖方
  
  
买方
  
  
任何方式
  
  
CIP
  
  
出口国内地、港口
  
  
承运人处置货物后
  
  
卖方
  
  
买方
  
  
任何方式
  
  
DAF
  
  
两国边境指定地点
  
  
买方处置货物后
  
  
卖方
  
  
买方
  
  
任何方式
  
  
DES
  
  
目的港口
  
  
买方在船上收货后
  
  
卖方
  
  
买方
  
  
水上运输
  
  
DEQ
  
  
目的港口
  
  
买方在码头收货后
  
  
卖方
  
  
买方
  
  
水上运输
  
  
DDU
  
  
进口国内
  
  
买方在指定地点收货后
  
  
卖方
  
  
买方
  
  
任何方式
  
  
DDP
  
  
进口国内
  
  
买方在指定地点收货后
  
  
卖方
  
  
卖方
  
  
任何方式
  

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